Leafminers create mines by consuming the tissue sandwiched between the upper and lower leaf surfaces.  Leafminers may belong to a number of insect orders including Lepidoptera (moths), Coleoptera (beetles), Hymenoptera (sawflies) and Diptera (flies). One of the most notorious leafminers is the Horsechestnut Leafminer (Cameraria ohridella) which is a leafmining moth (family Gracillariidae) that is wreaking havoc on its namesake host in Europe.  However, this leafminer has not been found in North America.

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